Cancer & Immunotherapy Symposium hosted by ACEA Biosciences

ACEA Biosciences Event, Featured, xCELLigence

Register for the Cancer & Immunotherapy Symposium, April 15-16, immediately prior to the 2016 Annual AACR Meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana (USA). While traditional small molecule chemotherapy continues to play a critical role in cancer treatment, immunotherapy is rapidly gaining traction.  This Cancer and Immunotherapy symposium is the 4th annual cancer symposium hosted by ACEA.    This symposium is a forum to …

Cardiosafety: Drug-Induced Arrythmia

ACEA Biosciences xCELLigence

Between 1990 and 2006 one third of all safety-related drug withdrawals were due to cardiotoxicity, and cardiac liability continues to be a major hurdle in drug development.  Within the pharmaceutical industry, academic institutions, and regulatory agencies there are ongoing efforts to develop higher throughput and more predictive assays that can be used earlier in the drug discovery/development pipeline to minimize …

Cytotoxicity: Nanotoxicity

ACEA Biosciences xCELLigence

Nanomaterials are organic or inorganic particles whose size is less than 100 nanometers in at least one dimension.  Though nanomaterials hold tremendous promise for myriad applications, their impact on living cells in the short and long term are incompletely understood.  Numerous studies have suggested that nanomaterials, even when made of inert materials, can still display toxicity because of their physical …

Functional Analysis of Genes & Proteins: siRNA

ACEA Biosciences xCELLigence

Using the xCELLigence System for Target Identification and Validation (A) HeLa cells were transfected with various concentrations of KIF11 (the gene encoding Eg5) siRNA.  A time and concentration-dependent antimitotic time-dependent cell response profiles (TCRPs) was observed with higher siRNA concentrations producing more pronounced CI changes. The kinetics of the CI profiles is very similar between various concentrations of siRNAs: CI …

Cytotoxicity Overview

ACEA Biosciences xCELLigence

Cytotoxicity is the general quality of being toxic to cells, and can be caused by chemical stimuli, exposure to other cells (NK or T cells for example), or physical/environmental conditions (radiation exposure, temperature or pressure extremes, etc.).  Cytotoxic treatment can result in one of three potential cellular fates.  Whereas necrotic cell death involves the rapid loss of membrane integrity and …

Cell Migration/Invasion: Transmigration

ACEA Biosciences xCELLigence

See the Cell Migration/Invasion Overview for background information. The example below demonstrates the use of ACEA’s cell invasion and migration plate (CIM-Plate®) and the xCELLigence® RTCA DP system to study transmigration, with specific focus on cancer spheroid invasion. APPLICATION HIGHLIGHT: Studying Ovarian Cancer Spheroid Invasion of Mesothelial Cells Once ovarian cancer cells shed into the peritoneal fluid, they aggregate and …

Cell Migration/Invasion: Chemotactic Migration

ACEA Biosciences xCELLigence

See the Cell Migration/Invasion Overview for background information. The examples below demonstrate the use of ACEA’s cell invasion and migration plate (CIM-Plate®) and the xCELLigence® RTCA DP system to study chemotactic migration, with specific focus on inflammation and cancer metastasis. APPLICATION HIGHLIGHT: Real-Time Chemotaxis of Macrophages Macrophage recruitment to sites of tissue injury, inflammation, or infection is essential for mounting …

Cell Barrier Function

ACEA Biosciences xCELLigence

Comparison of Conventional Methods with the Dynamic Impedance-Based Method for Monitoring Ethanol-Induced Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction (A) The reversible barrier dysfunction induced by 7.5% ethanol was assessed by measuring phenol red permeability (control: untreated Caco-2 cell monolayer; EtOH: Caco-2 exposed in ethanol for 3 h; EtOH removal: Caco-2 exposed in ethanol for 3 h followed by replacing ethanol with fresh medium …

Receptor Signaling Overview

ACEA Biosciences xCELLigence

Critical to all forms of life is the ability to temporally regulate cellular processes based on environment/circumstance.  Whereas the downstream regulatory processes can involve biochemical modification (phosphorylation, allosteric inhibition, etc.) and/or changes to transcription/translation profiles, the initial “sensing” event occurs predominantly through membrane receptor signaling (Figure 1).   Figure 1.  Membrane receptor signaling.  Extracellular stimuli are initially “sensed” predominantly through …

Cancer Immunotherapy: Macrophage-Mediated Phagocytosis

ACEA Biosciences xCELLigence

Tumor Associated Macrophages Macrophages are important effector cells of innate immunity. Depending on the tissue microenvironment, tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) can differentiate into either cytotoxic (M1) or tumor-promoting (M2) states. While cytotoxic M1 macrophages are typically induced by IFN-γ alone or in concert with microbial products, tumor promoting M2 macrophages are induced by IL-4 or IL-13, IL-10, IL-21, TGFβ, immune complexes, …